Salinity determines compressibility, thermal expansion, temperature, density, absorption of insolation, evaporation, and humidity. ; The AIS is one of the largest glacier drainage basins in the world, located on the east coast of Antarctica. The oceans and salt lakes are becoming saltier as time goes on because the rivers dump more salt into them, while freshwater is lost due to evaporation. MYUPSC – IAS Prelims Test Series 2021: ENVIRONMENT & CURRENT AFFAIRS – 6: Before any competition, there is a preparatory phase.That phase involves a … Sociology Optional Intoduction. Ethics Case Study: Five Types of Case Studies You Shouldn’t Miss Out On! Several drifters are planted in oceans which then descend into the predetermined depth of the ocean. Out of a plethora of study material available both online and offline, the candidates must select the best books for UPSC … The amount of fresh water added by precipitation, streams and icebergs, To make life easier, I will remove the symbol o/oo and place only number. Jan 07, 2021 - Ocean Salinity Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. (2018) This region of steep temperature gradient is known as the permanent thermocline, beneath which, from about 1000 m to the ocean floor, there is virtually no seasonal variation and the temperatures are around 2 C. This narrow range is maintained throughout the deep oceans, both geographically and seasonally, because it is ; This causes changes in water temperature, ocean acidification and deoxygenation, leading to changes in oceanic circulation and chemistry, rising sea levels, increased storm intensity, as well as changes in the diversity and abundance of marine … This year’s UPSC Prelims Exam focused on topics such as agriculture, farming and fertigation, geography, etc. The temperature of the ocean water on the surface is known as Sea Surface Temperature. Drifters are used for measuring the data for deeper oceans. Latent and sensible heat processes do play important roles here. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 3 times. What is meant by Ocean Mean Temperature? In the Winter evaporation, IR … July 7: In the view of COVID-19 pandemic, UPSC has allowed candidates to revise IAS exam centre choice in two phases. The insulation of ice shelves from atmospheric forcing is dependent on a temperature gradient that the ocean cavity beneath the ice shelves provides. The class will be delivered in Hindi and notes for the same will be provided in Hindi/English. ... Stratification and Mobility-Part-02. It is used for weather predictions, ocean forecasts, fisheries forecasts, pollution monitoring, and tourism. Distribution. The polar areas experience very little evaporation and receive large amounts of freshwater from the melting of ice. Waves 2. Sumit Kumar. (See Major Ocean Currents: How to learn faster?) In this article, we are going to read about what is ocean mean temperature, how it is measured, and the role it plays in measuring temperature. However, other regional factors also determine the water density. The depths of water columns and a longitudinal/ latitudinal location are used to measure time series through moorings. Tides 3. Occluded front A complex front formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front, lifting all of the warm air mass off the ground. A tiny fraction of this salt is extracted by humans for daily consumption. The range of salinity is negligible where there is free mixing of water by surface and subsurface currents. The lowest (3.3°C or 35.94°F) and the highest (32.2°C or 89.96°F) temperatures of the oceans are recorded near New Scotland and in the western Pacific Ocean … Sumit Kumar. The low salinity trend is observed in the Bay of Bengal due to the influx of river water by the river Ganga. ... sea stratification, and bottom water formation are important parameters for the balancing of a glacier. This evaporation removes water- when water vapor rises into the atmosphere, it leaves the salt behind, so the salinity of the seawater increases. The ice sheet mass balance, sea stratification, and bottom water formation are important parameters for the balancing of a glacier. In the thermocline, temperature decreases rapidly from the mixed upper layer of the ocean (called the epipelagic zone) to much colder deep water in the thermocline (mesopelagic zone). Ocean CurrentsWaves and the ocean currents … Introduction to Ocean Deposits 2. Why in News. The hydrosphere covers nearly 71% of the total surface area of the earth. The Baltic, Arctic, and Antarctic waters have a salinity of <32 ppt because much freshwater is added from the melting of icebergs, as well as by several large poleward bound rivers. In the Arctic domain, upward fluxes of heat and salt from the deep Atlantic layer are largest in the frontier region, where the stratification is weaker. Below 3,300 feet to a depth of about 13,100 feet, water temperature remains constant.At depths below 13,100 feet, the … Isotherms are closely spaced when the temperature difference is high and vice versa. Salinity is expressed as the amount of salt in grams dissolved in sea water per (a) 10 gm (c) 100 gm (b) 1,000 gm (d) 10,000 gm; Which one of the following is the smallest ocean: (a) Indian Ocean (c) Atlantic Ocean (b) Arctic Ocean (d) Pacific Ocean UPSC Prelims is the screening stage of the Civil Services Exam which is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission every year. It is also known as the salt cycle. Occluded front A complex front formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front, lifting all of the warm air mass off the ground. ... Hindi Optional Courses. Strata may range from The lower salinity water rests above the higher salinity dense water. Ali, senior scientist at IITM, “Sea surface temperature gives information only about the thin paper layer and does not reflect the thermal energy available in the upper ocean.” On the other hand, Ocean Temperature represents the upper ocean thermal conditions better. The red line in this illustration shows a typical seawater temperature profile. For example, If you purchase the notes with “Download Validity == 2 Years,” on 01/01/2020, then you will be able to download the Static Files + Current Affairs files till 02/01/2022. Horizontal And Vertical Distribution Of Salinity (UPSC Notes):-Download PDF Here. Ocean Temperature can bring about major physical impacts on beach areas, such as freezing of the beach and water surfaces. Movements of ocean water are also affected by external forces like the sun, moon and the winds.The major movements of the ocean waters can be classified into three. Stratification, the layering that occurs in most sedimentary rocks and in those igneous rocks formed at the Earth’s surface, as from lava flows and volcanic fragmental deposits. The movements of water in oceans can be categorized into currents, waves, and tides. These deep-ocean currents are driven by differences in the water’s density, which is controlled by temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline). Stratification tends to separate nutrient rich from light rich waters. . Part of: GS-Prelims and GS-III – Climate change In News: The National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR) has predicted an increase in the expansion of Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) boundaries from its 2016 positions. Get exclusive UPSC Resources that I only share with Telegram subscribers. Questions from UPSC 2020 Prelims Examination. Geography terms and Definitions starting with O | UPSC – IAS. There are different types of movements of ocean water under the influence of different physical characteristics like temperature, salinity, density, etc. The salinity of the Great Salt Lake, (Utah, USA), the Dead Sea, and the Lake Van in Turkey are 220, 240, and 330 respectively. 5. Geography is an interesting subject which covers land (lithosphere), water (hydrosphere) and air (atmosphere). The lowest (3.3°C or 35.94°F) and the highest (32.2°C or 89.96°F) temperatures of the oceans are recorded near New Scotland and in the western Pacific Ocean … It is therefore important that we find the right resources to get appropriate precautions for Indian Summer Monsoons. Free classes & tests. Ocean acidification is a term used to describe the decrease in the pH levels of the ocean over a period of time, primarily due to the intake of excess amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. There are parts of the ocean where hardly any rain falls but warm dry winds cause lots of evaporation. High salinity seawater, generally, sinks below the lower salinity water. This salt returns to the lithosphere mixed with precipitation. High salinity seawater, usually, sinks below the lower salinity water. Get the latest posts delivered right to your email. In this class, Dr GL Sharma will cover all the aspects of Chapter 15 (Challenges of Social Transformation) of Sociology Optional Paper 2. Ended on Aug 2, 2020. In September 2018, the OMT came into highlight when Indian scientists found out that it could be a better instrument for predicting Indian Monsoon and Summers than the Sea Surface Temperature. 2 Between about 200 m and 1000 m depth, the temperature declines rapidly throughout much of the ocean. Hindi Optional Courses. changes12.1 OCEANS – AN INTRODUCTION About three – fourth of the earth is covered by Hydrosphere. Monsoon predictions play a huge role in determining the crops and seasonal output. Stratification, the layering that occurs in most sedimentary rocks and in those igneous rocks formed at the Earth’s surface, as from lava flows and volcanic fragmental deposits. In high latitudes, salinity increases with depth. Source: Lind et al. Highest marks in essay upsc 2019 essayer une nouvelle coupe de cheveu opinion essay about are newspapers necessary nowadays, ap literature great gatsby essay. This region of steep temperature gradient is known as the permanent thermocline, beneath which, from about 1000 m to the ocean floor, there is virtually no … The temperature of the ocean water on the surface is known as Sea Surface Temperature. Transfer of heat by evaporation and condensation. You can read up more about the UPSC Mains Geography Syllabus here. This leads to. Let's start from ocean floor first. It is estimated that the ocean has absorbed 93% of the excess energy in the climate system arising from global warming (referred to as “excess heat”; Rhein et al., 201… Besides, some energy, ... Stratification of seawater. In the middle latitudes, it increases up to 35 metres and then it decreases. Now let's see how to learn fast the concepts associated with hydrosphere. Among these, ocean currents are the large masses of surface water that circulate in regular patterns around the oceans. Let's understand how these decreased pH levels are proving disastrous for the oceans and marine life. You all know that the ocean water is never still. Geography terms and Definitions starting with O | UPSC – IAS. The study of ocean (marine) deposits includes the consideration of types of sediments, their […] Also Read: What are Geographical Indication Tags: Recent GI tags in India. This stage is officially known as the Civil Services (Preliminary) exam, but in common parlance, aspirants refer to it as UPSC Prelims or IAS Prelims. Some of the salts in the ocean waters accumulate at the ocean bottom through the process of sedimentation turning into mineralized rocks. It is also known as the salt cycle. UPSC Prelims Syllabus – Indian History & Indian National Movement. Ocean Floor Configuration Globally, the sinking flux of organic matter from the upper ocean into the ocean interior is very likely to decrease by 9–16% for RCP8.5 in response to increased stratification and reduced nutrient supply, especially in tropical regions (medium confidence), which will reduce organic carbon supply to deep sea ecosystems (high confidence). It is a significant factor in deciding several characteristics of the chemistry of natural waters and biological processes. Salt from the oceans also gets sprayed into the atmosphere due to the action of wind. The layers range from several millimetres to many metres in thickness and vary greatly in shape.