For example, 1m corresponds to a synchronization accuracy of around 3ns, which is orders of magnitude more stringent than other radio network synchronization requirements. Two PTP profiles have been defined for the use of PTP in telecom – G.8275.1 (PTP with full timing support from the network) and G.8275.2 (PTP with partial timing support from the network) . The 3GPP technical specification TS 23.501  presents an architecture and methods that enable the successful integration of a 5G network into a TSN synchronization network. It means that unless carriers install nodes in every lane, street, and neighbourhood, ... Nokia, Ericsson, Samsung, and ZTE sell 5G network chips to carriers to build base stations and carrier nodes. But none of those will be possible without 5G Core (5GC). Accurate and reliable synchronization has long been a fundamental prerequisite for the correct operation of telecommunications networks. Pioneering customers select us as their 5G partner and we are first with commercial live networks in four continents. The connectivity needs of all industries can be addressed by four multi-purpose IoT segments, which efficiently co-exist in one 5G network. Figure 4: Recommended synchronization solutions. Features requiring stricter synchronization are generally implemented between neighboring base stations. Even if features in this category can be served from distributed TRxPs (where generally ∆Tprop≠ 0) – that is, not being restricted to a colocated/inter-site deployment scenario – it would be difficult to specify and mandate a single fixed TAE. MRTD as a fraction of a cyclic prefix (CP). According to its SpeedTest field research, a network speed of 959.39Mbps in the UAE puts it at the top of the global list, ahead of Saudi Arabia (921.11Mbps) and Norway (865.57Mbps). The strict MRTD, and thereby TAE, relates to features using the same frequencies (like MIMO (multiple-input, multiple-output)) or at adjacent spectrum (like contiguous carrier aggregation) where common or shared functions in the RF chain could cause strict timing dependencies. Pioneering customers select us as their 5G partner and we are first with commercial live networks in four continents. While the level of the required synchronization accuracy depends on several factors, it would be a mistake to apply the tightest synchronization requirement as a general 5G requirement, as doing so would make the cost for 5G and the future evolution of the mobile technologies unsustainable. The time synchronization reference is carried through a PTP, where the PRTC is the source of time for the PTP Grandmaster, also known as the Telecom Grandmaster (T-GM). 5G will be offered through 5G towers but not only. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is always a hot topic. 5G devices will likely be introduced towards the end of 2018. … However, during technology shifts and business transformations it becomes crucial. He holds an M. Sc. To decrease overheads, the emphasis is on striving to keep the guard periods short, while still catering for the desired effects. Ericsson Addendum: According to Ericsson’s latest Mobility Report, published earlier this week, global 5G subscriptions will exceed 2.6bn within the next six years and by that time Ericsson predicts that 5G will cover 65 percent of the world.It also believes that total mobile subscriptions, including to previous generation networks, will reach 8.9bn from 8bn over the next six years. The new 5GC architecture called as Service-Based Architecture (SBA), is built using IT network principles and cloud native technology. There are two requirements for time domain isolation: For TDD synchronicity and interference, the critical points are when switching between transmission and reception, as shown in Figure 2. . Here, Ericsson´s 5G platform plays an instrumental role, in helping you build a better 5G network in a better way. Coordination may also occur between NR and LTE. This approach allows new 5G services to be introduced quickly while maximizing the reuse of existing 4G networks. Time and phase synchronization is particularly important in 5G networks. It is an evolution of our powerful virtualized portfolio, designed for cloud deployment, consisting of our Cloud Packet Core, Cloud Unified Data Management (UDM) and Policy and Signaling Controller products. Finding the right balance between timing accuracy, availability and cost is key to making services successful. When the 5G experience is everything, it’s crucial to deliver on customer expectations from day one. In 3GPP New Radio (NR), cell phase synchronization is specified as 3µs  – that is, the same as for LTE. Get to the core of 5G – a cloud native dual-mode 5G Core that combines EPC and 5GC network functions into a common cloud native platform for efficient TCO and smooth migration to 5G. Their challenges include: How to profit from opportunity with a flexible core that embraces openness and the new ecosystem that will spring from the Ericsson Internal | 2018-02-21 Technology used 4G/5G, IoT, Augmented Reality Expected or delivered results Enable, through a 5G network planned to operate in the port of Livorno area, augmented reality applications for improving efficiency and safety in goods handling in the port area. Moreover, the time error can be better estimated during holdover, making it possible to take consequent actions per service (TDD, for example). TDD radio frames inherently require time and phase alignment between radio base stations, to prevent interferences and related loss of traffic. Pioneering customers select us as their 5G partner and we are first with commercial live networks in four continents. Johansson holds an M.Sc. A variety of features that benefit from coordinated transmission or receptions from multiple TRxPs have been standardized over the years, all with different purposes and characteristics. This Ericsson Technology Review article explains the main categories of 5G synchronization requirements and presents a toolbox of solutions for all relevant scenarios, the most challenging of which can often be addressed within the RAN domain. Verizon’s 5G gets points for speed but knocks for coverage | … While there is no change to fundamental synchronization requirements in the move from 4G to 5G, wider use of TDD radio technology and growing demand for new network architectures that support demanding 5G use cases have made the need for … These applications require synchronization accuracy in the same range as the TSN. This means that a PTP-based solution can also fulfill this requirement. It is the first mobile technology designed for machines and systems in addition to people. There are no specific synchronization requirements for the CU. 5G is set to be revolutionary. In many cases, a combination of techniques in both domains will be required to create a robust and reliable solution. Communications Service Providers (CSPs) and Enterprises often struggle with the complexity created by successive mobility generations, packetization, and cloud. The MRTD consists of a base-station relative time alignment error (TAE) and an RF propagation delay difference (∆Tprop). Each Network Function (NF) is formed by a combination of small pieces of software code called as microservices. History Foundation. Ericsson Packet Core, are currently looking for a software developer to strengthen our team and community in one of Ericsson's industry-leading product that is a part of Product Development Group (PDG-Mobility). Network synchronization is key to optimal radio network performance. Almost every industry can be transformed with cellular IoT. in applied physics and electrical engineering from the Linköping Institute of Technology, Sweden. Read our TCO benefits paper (executive summary) (full version). Short disruptions due to interference and blocking are common, but the negative impact can be avoided or limited by the base station’s holdover using the local oscillator – up to a few hours for a TDD base station, for example. Based on the level of required MRTD, three main categories could be identified: In the case of MRTD as a fraction of the CP, the remaining duration of the CP allows for channel delay spread. While many applications benefit from accurate time synchronization, it is important to realize that high time accuracy over large areas can be very costly. The journey to 5G Core makes network insights essential, but the traditional approach to data collection is unsustainable. Programmability in 5G Core networks has the potential to disrupt today's mobile network business models allowing service providers to expand then offerings to industry 4.0 beyond connectivity.. Some approaches to solving the UE device-positioning use case rely on accurate synchronization of the radio nodes with the help of methods such as OTDOA (Observed Time Difference of Arrival). The adoption of cloud-native technology and the new 5G Core architecture will impact other parts of the core network as infrastructure, voice services, automation and orchestration, operations and management and security. The two main types of synchronization requirements that are relevant for 5G networks are those that depend on the radio network operation and those that depend on the supported services (application-driven requirements). The time period a clock can remain within the required accuracy depends on the stability of the assisting source. For the same delay spread, UE1 and UE4 can tolerate larger TAE than UE2 and UE3. The split option is denominated as 7-2x and it is an intra-PHY split – that is, some parts of the 3GPP PHY layer are implemented in the DU and others in the RU . Some microservices can even be re-used for different NFs, making implementation more effective and facilitating independent life-cycle management – which allows upgrades and new functionalities to be deployed with zero impact on running services. Redundancy is achieved through a PTP network that is fed from geographically redundant T-GMs and distributes timing over the same physically redundant topologies that are used for user traffic. The baseband function in a base station is split into two logical units: a CU hosting the higher-layer protocols and a DU handling the lower layers to the user equipment (UE). The optimal solution for a specific network may depend on existing synchronization feature support of the network and network elements, transport network modernization plans that improve synchronization support, as well as operator preferences. RANs are designed to optimize service performance and reliability, and synchronization is a vital enabler. Per the recent collaboration, the 5G data and voice calls were made on Ericsson’s 5G infrastructure and harnessed the next-gen technology of Oppo … OAS is based on round-trip time measurement similar to PTP, with the advantage that the asymmetries are generally small over the air, making it possible to achieve good time alignment. Why do you need a 5G Core network and 5G NR Standalone? In Ooredoo Qatar’s network, Ericsson Radio System has facilitated a fast nationwide 5G coverage. has worked with timing and synchronization distribution within the RAN base station and with air transmission accuracy for 20 years. TLS and IPsec, on all interfaces, vendor credentials, HW rooted trust anchors for trusted boot, and signed software to ensure that only software provided by Ericsson can execute on the platform. Synchronization requirements related to communication over the radio interface can be divided into two categories: TDD cell phase synchronization (Tsync) and communication features based on coordinated transmission or reception from multiple Transmission Reception Points (TRxPs). A toolkit lets integrated operators run their mobile and fixed-line operations on a common 5G core. Some of them are implemented in the RAN domain, while others are implemented in the transport domain. The synchronization aspects of fronthaul networks are also addressed by the O-RAN Alliance. 5G capable networks are now a reality around the globe, however, these new 5G networks will co-exist side by side with 4G ones for many years, while at the same time efficiencies need to be improved in order to capture new opportunities. Ericsson’s dual-mode 5G Core is built on cloud-native, microservices-based technology and combines Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and 5G Core (5GC) network functions into a common multi-access and cloud-native platform that supports 5G and as well as previous generations for optimized footprint and TCO efficiency. This prevents interference between different networks using adjacent frequency bands or between national borders, because it enables the phase alignment of the radio frames generated by different networks with overlapping areas. Assisted partial timing support (APTS), which concerns the use of PTP as a backup for GNSS, is an important implementation of the G.8275.2 profile. This includes multiple operators in both the US and South Korea, as well as in Switzerland, Australia and UAE. As noted in the bottom of the figure, ∆Tprop_UE1 and ∆Tprop_UE4 are less than ∆Tprop_UE2, which is less than ∆Tprop_UE3. We have compiled a comprehensive toolbox of synchronization techniques that can be used to provide appropriate frequency synchronization and time alignment of the radio network with minimal disruption. UTC traceability does not imply that UTC time is recovered or that leap seconds are used; in fact, the 3GPP also requires the use of continuous time without leap seconds. Since any source of asymmetry results in error in the time synchronization distribution, the asymmetry must either be known and compensated for or sufficiently small to be negligible. The network evolution from EPC to 5G core plays a central role in creating a powerful network platform, capable of being exposed and automated, for service providers to extract more value and become contributors in existing and emerging ecosystems.However, the journey to a full 5G Core will imply a technology shift with the adoption of the new 3GPP defined service-based architecture (SBA) and network functions built on cloud native technology. Learn our smooth and step-wise migration alternatives to 5G Core. Watch this video for an overview of our multi-access, high-performance and cost-effective core platform for 5G above or explore our assets below to gain more insights. With Ericsson’s dual-mode 5G Core, software probes are built-in. Frequency synchronization in these reference networks is carried over the physical layer (typically using synchronous Ethernet). Soft Skill & Behavioural Proficiency: Effective communication & Presentation skill. Figure 1: Synchronization in new network scenarios. Ericsson CTO Erik Ekudden’s view on the importance of synchronization in 5G. This is because the reduced transient times in NR made it possible to keep the same synchronization requirement with low overhead. It is integrated with Ericsson Packet Core Gateway in Ericsson’s dual-mode 5G Core offering and addresses security use cases for core network deployments in mobile broadband and IoT segments. T-Mobile US, Inc. TMUS recently announced multi-billion-dollar deals with Ericsson ERIC and Nokia NOK to continue expanding its nationwide 5G network. Industrial automation scenarios often involve multiple timing domains. Over-the-air synchronization (OAS) methods provide an attractive synchronization alternative in this case. Still others relate to specific services like Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service over a Single Frequency Network. From that it was born a new core network 3GPP standard and architecture known as 5G Core (5GC). In cases where the TDD-unicast area is not isolated, the 3GPP has specified that traceability to a standard timing reference (UTC) is required . However, to unlock 5G’s full potential NR standalone (SA) and 5G Core (5GC) is needed. The challenge Increase the port capacity and safety with When 5G is used to support smart grid applications, the 3GPP synchronization architecture  can be used to support the distribution of timing to the synchro-phasors that in this way can measure the phase relationships in the AC power distribution network. The 5G Core (5GC) is the heart of the mobile network where ultra-connectivity translates into service differentiation and business flexibility. Examples include time-sensitive networks (TSNs), smart grid applications and the UE device-positioning use case. The distribution of time-phase and frequency synchronization has been addressed in several ITU-T recommendations . For colocated D and E, the TAE of D-E is generally less than the TAE of A-B. Only then will your network perform at scale, adapt at pace and unlock new revenue streams. Allocation of a budget to the different components of the guard period is the result of a trade-off between cost (product and deployment), availability, TDD periodicity and overheads. He is currently an active contributor to ITU-T SG15 Q13 (serving as rapporteur) and other relevant synchronization standardization bodies, as well as serving as the chair of the International Timing and Sync Forum (ITSF). Download our 5G core programmability paper to learn more. When the GNSS reference is lost, the holdover time can be prolonged by using assisting synchronization sources such as APTS, OAS and PRTC/enhanced PRTC traceable synchronous Ethernet. GNSS is based on satellites having a known time and orbit position, transmitting messages whose arrival are measured by the GNSS receiver. The ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector) specification of the primary reference time clock (PRTC) includes the possibility for the PRTC to be synchronized with GNSS. To meet the TDD “relative” synchronization requirement that cell phase synchronization must be better than 3µs, the accuracy of the time synchronization reference at the input to the base station must always be better than ±1.1µs when measured against a standard time reference. Ericsson’s dual-mode 5G Core is built on cloud-native, microservices-based technology and combines Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and 5G Core (5GC) network functions into a common multi-access and cloud-native platform that supports 5G and as well as previous generations for optimized footprint and TCO efficiency. The duration of the guard period needs to cater for four effects: Since guard periods are not used for communication, they reduce the time ratio when spectrum resources can be used. Distributing time synchronization over the same transport network infrastructure used for user data has the benefits of providing the same level of robustness and redundancy for timing as for the user traffic itself. , Currently, the vast majority of commercial 5G deployments are based on NR non-standalone (NSA) technology which uses existing LTE radio access for signaling between devices and the network, and Evolved Packet Core (EPC) networks which are enhanced to support 5G NSA. He holds an M.Sc. It establishes reliable and secure connectivity to the network and access to its services, determines the quality of service and enforces it through policy allowing services differentiation and handles wide area mobility throughout the network. Ericsson ERIC recently inked a deal for an undisclosed amount with China Telecom and China Unicom to offer core products and solutions for 5G … Therefore, the architecture is separated into functional … Some of the most compelling use cases for 5G, including industrial automation, depend on more accurate timing and will likely generate additional synchronization requirements in the near future. There are guidelines for this in G.8271.1 . The fundamental technologies to address these requirements come from the GNSS, which provides the basic technology for a time synchronization master, enabling global distribution of a UTC-traceable reference. In short, 5GC is a fundamental piece of the 5G network to: What are the key characteristics and benefits from 5G Core (5GC) and New Radio (NR) standalone? The Future Network Architecture needs to provide for a lot of various types of functionality and at the same time it is required to be able to deploy that functionality in different physical locations. An efficient synchronization solution that addresses all relevant scenarios requires the support of a toolbox of synchronization methods that are implemented in the RAN domain (GNSS and OAS), the transport domain (such as PTP), or both. The 3GPP has therefore defined a maximum receive timing difference (MRTD) as a maximum relative receive timing difference the UE must be capable of handling. The basic concept is to distribute time synchronization from the PTP “grandmaster” to the leaf PTP clocks, using PTP messages. Ericsson's 5G radio prototype, which provides 5G wireless network access, has been widely deployed for real-world testing in the U.S., South Korea, Japan, … In contrast, features in the “MRTD without CP relation” category allow a relatively large part for ∆Tprop and thereby more flexible deployments, such as heterogeneous networks. Also, cars will use 5G technology for different services. Start the core network transformation journey for 5G with Ericsson and get ready for future … Read our guide Building a new world - evolving from EPC to 5G Core. The RU is the main user of synchronization and it may also be synchronized by a timing reference generated directly at the radio site. Check the latest information on our 5G agreements. This includes multiple operators in both the US and South Korea, as well as in Switzerland, Australia and UAE. 5G makes it possible to serve several applications that have previously been supported either by wireline or by non-standard radio technologies, such as Critical Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Automation IoT services  for which time synchronization is fundamental. The best control over the synchronization network architecture will be achieved by rolling out PTP from the lower part of the transport network, with GNSS receivers and T-GM functionality in base stations or routers, and be extended to include T-GMs that are higher up in the network when feasible. This results in synchronization requirements in the microsecond range between nodes in the TSN. This message exchange enables the distribution of the time from the PTP grandmaster and estimates the path delay. Verizon and Sprint share what comes next on their core network transition from 4G to 5G. In these cases, it should only be used as an assisting reference in APTS mode for GNSS. We use Cloud Native technologies and tools to develop our 4G and 5G products on a container-based micro-service architecture. This paper presents a clear evolution plan for addressing all 5G-IoT use cases, from basic to the most complex, in a cost-efficient, smooth and future-proof way. In 3GPP TS 38.104 , the TAE ranges between 65ns to 260ns depending on the feature and on the CP duration but is only valid for colocated/ intra-site deployments where ∆Tprop~0. Rather, the required TAE would depend on actual deployment, its RF characteristics and the UEs’ relative position between the TRxPs, as shown in Figure 3. New network architectures imply new approaches to addressing the various synchronization needs. For many features, what matters more than anything else is the relative time error between neighboring base stations. A core network for 5G is more than 5G Core. The RANs use different sources, often in combination, to provide synchronization characteristics to match the network use case and services delivered. The time and frequency synchronization distribution can be achieved using a combination of PTP and synchronous Ethernet. Ericsson leads the implementation of 5G worldwide, partly through the use of massive MIMO technology. in electrical engineering from KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. Ericsson estimates the number of subscriptions reaching one billion by the end of 2023. This includes using Precision Time Protocol (PTP) and radio interface-based methods to synchronize distributed radio units in the evolved RAN architecture, where the upper and lower parts of the 5G New Radio (NR) RAN are separated in the different logical units: the centralized unit (CU), the distributed unit (DU) and the radio unit (RU). Ericsson and BT to deliver dual-mode services using '5G Core' | … A solution is considered to be RAN based if it can fulfill the synchronization requirements of the RAN network without synchronization support from the transport network. Continuous delivery and deployment of software is helping Swisscom turn on 5G. Ericsson's 5G New Radio RAN is an integral component of its 5G platform and includes software support for shift from LTE (a 4G mobile communications … The Ericsson Packet Core Firewall provides a fusion of user plane security and advanced security functions. A recent report by Ericsson  shows that "A small majority of European and North American operators believed 5G will be more consumer-driven, while a similar majority in Asia Pacific and Central and Latin America expected 5G to be more … He also contributes actively to ITU-T SG15 Q13 and IEEE 1588. The two main RAN-based solutions are GNSS-based synchronization and over-the-air synchronization (OAS). In this case, the distribution of a single time reference is sufficient. The operator’s goal was to provide 5G coverage to 75% of the Spanish population by the end of 2020. Ericsson is a technology leader in 5G. Operational Knowledge of Multi-Vendor transmission Nodes - Ericsson / Nokia / Huawei / Ceragon Telecom equipment. In parts of the network where transport does not support PTP, PTP should not be used as the primary time source for RAN nodes due to the limitations on the achievable performance. Countless devices and services will also use 5G such as self-driving cars, remote surgery and other innovations as well. Ericsson is a technology leader in 5G. We are now looking for a Test Engineer who will be required to co-ordinate and execute testing of Ericsson 4G/5G RAN nodes solutions in the Customer RAN Test Lab, planning the test deliveries during the test execution phase. In particular, one of the groups in O-RAN addresses the split between the DU and RU – O-DU and O-RU in the O-RAN terminology. Another important aspect of the PTP network planning is time error budget planning, which depends on the dimension of the network and the accuracy of the PTP-aware network elements. Industrial automation is just one example of a use case that requires accurate timing and is likely to generate additional synchronization requirements in the near future. He joined Ericsson in 2005 and has served as a member of the ORAN Working Group 4 (Open Fronthaul) with standardization since Ericsson joined the ORAN Alliance in 2019. Although the fundamental synchronization requirements have not become more stringent in 5G, the need for time synchronization has become much more critical. Ericsson's 5G radio network products build further on proven 4G platforms which, today, offer state-of-the art security functions such as support for secure protocols, e.g. Frequency synchronization based on packet protocols like Network Time Protocol (NTP) or PTP using the G.8265.1 profile (in a PTP-unaware network) has proven to be the most cost-efficient solution in LTE-FDD networks, where frequency synchronization alone was often sufficient. Authors: Stefano Ruffini, Mikael Johansson, Björn Pohlman, Magnus Sandgren, APTS – Assisted Partial Timing SupportCP – Cyclic Prefix CPRI – Common Public Radio Interface CU – Centralized UnitDL – DownlinkDU – Distributed UniteCPRI – Enhanced CPRI ePRTC – Enhanced Primary Reference Time Clock FTS – Full Timing SupportGNSS – Global Navigation Satellite SystemIoT – Internet of ThingsITU-T – International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization SectorMRTD – Maximum Receive Timing DifferenceNR – New RadioNTP – Network Time Protocol OAS – Over-the-Air SynchronizationPRTC – Primary Reference Time ClockPTP – Precision Time ProtocolRF – Radio FrequencyRU – Radio UnitRX – ReceptionT-GM – Telecom GrandmasterTAE – Time Alignment ErrorTSN – Time-Sensitive Network/NetworkingTX – TransmissionUE – User EquipmentUL – Uplink UTC – Coordinated Universal Time. Knowledge of Transmission servers (M2000, SoEM) & switches. While there is no change to fundamental synchronization requirements in the move from 4G to 5G, wider use of TDD radio technology and growing demand for new network architectures that support demanding 5G use cases have made the need for time synchronization more critical in 5G. joined Ericsson in 2002 and currently works as a researcher at Business Area Networks, where much of his time is spent on analysis and solutions related to synchronization, including contributions to 3GPP standardization.
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