... A service mesh provides additional security over the network, which spans outside the single EKS network. So let’s change this by creating a role psp:unprivileged for the pod security policy eks.restrictive: Now, create the rolebinding to grant the eks-test-user the use verb on the eks.restrictive policy. This build-in feature is pretty easy to implement and use. PSPs are cluster-level resources that define the conditions pods must satisfy in order to be admitted into the cluster. Memory is incompressible, i.e. Your main task is to define sensible PSPs that are scoped for your environment, and enable them as described above. This could allow an attacker to modify the kubelet settings, create symbolic links to directories or files not directly exposed by the hostPath, e.g. The Kubernetes podSpec includes a set of fields under spec.securityContext, that allow to let you specify the user and/or group to run your application as. While you can’t prevent this from happening all together, setting requests and limits will help minimize resource contention and mitigate the risk from poorly written applications that consume an excessive amount of resources. If a container exceeds the requested amount of memory it may be subject to termination if there’s memory pressure on the node. Policies are ordered alphabetically by their name, and a policy that does not change pod is preferred over mutating policies. Although the actions of root within a container are partially constrained by the set of Linux capabilities that Docker assigns to the containers, these default privileges could allow an attacker to escalate their privileges and/or gain access to sensitive information bound to the host, including Secrets and ConfigMaps. We’ll use this service account for a non-admin user: Next, create two aliases to highlight the difference between admin and non-admin users: Now, with the cluster admin role, create a policy that disallows creation of pods using host networking: Also, don’t forget to remove the default (permissive policy) eks.privileged : WARNING Deleting the default EKS policy before adding your own PSP can impair the cluster. For additional information about each capability, see http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man7/capabilities.7.html. It will prevent containers from traversing the host file system from outside the prefix: A pod without requests or limits can theoretically consume all of the resources available on a host. Rarely will pods need this type of access, but if they do, you need to be aware of the risks. Privileged escalation allows a process to change the security context under which its running. CPU and RAM, allocated to a namespace. The manifest for that policy appears below: This PSP allows an authenticated user to run privileged containers across all namespaces within the cluster. Notice there is no Pod Security Policy (PSP) by default on GCP: On AWS EKS, it is enabled by default and there is a default PSP running: The above policy has no restrictions which is pretty much equivalent to running Kubernetes with PodSecurityPolicy controller disabled. Limits are the maximum amount of CPU and memory resources that a container is allowed to consume and directly corresponds to the memory.limit_in_bytes value of the cgroup created for the container. For all other serviceaccounts/namespaces, we recommend implementing a more restrictive policy such as this: This policy prevents pods from running as privileged or escalating privileges. The reason for this is twofold. When you provision an EKS cluster, a pod security policy called eks.privileged is automatically created. Traffic flow to and from pods with associated security groups are not subjected to Calico network policy … Second, adding the USER directive to your Dockerfile or running the containers in the pod as a non-root user. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. An EKS 1.13 cluster now has the PSP admission plugin enabled by default, so there’s nothing EKS users need to do. However, we would expect that a host networking-based pod creation should be rejected, because of what we defined in our eks.restrictive PSP, above: Great! These include: guaranteed, burstable, and best-effort. As a Kubernetes practitioner your chief concern should be preventing a process that’s running in a container from escaping the isolation boundaries of Docker and gaining access to the underlying host. Requests don't affect the memory_limit_in_bytes value of the container's cgroup; the cgroup limit is set to the amount of memory available on the host. For example, you may want to prevent developers from running a pod with containers that don’t define a user (hence, run as root). Or, equally possible, different projects or teams might require different levels of protection and hence different PSPs. By contrast, limit ranges give you more granular control of the allocation of resources. Michael is an Open Source Product Developer Advocate in the AWS container service team covering open source observability and service meshes. With limit ranges you can min/max for CPU and memory resources per pod or per container within a namespace. For example, pod security policies can be used to prevent containers from running as the root user, and network policies can restrict communication between pods. The pod can isolate networks for a group of containers. As a cluster admin, you may have wondered how to enforce certain policies concerning runtime properties for pods in a cluster. hostPath is a volume that mounts a directory from the host directly to the container. # This policy assumes the nodes are using AppArmor rather than SELinux. While this conveniently lets you to build/run images in Docker containers, you're basically relinquishing complete control of the node to the process running in the container. Seldom do containers need these types of privileges to function properly. 3. In general, you want to define PSPs according to the least-privilege principle: from enforcing rootless containers, to read-only root filesystems, to limitations on what can be mounted from the host (the EC2 instance the containers in a pod are running on). A Pod Security Policy (PSP) is an object that can control most of the security settings mentioned previously on the cluster level. vpc_id - The VPC associated with your cluster. For your security team, you can get a summary of events for the last hour, or the last week, etc. In this post we will review what PSPs are, how to enable them in the Kubernetes control plane and how to use them, from both the cluster admin and the developer perspective. If limits are set on all containers within the pod, or if the requests and limits are set to the same values and not equal to 0, the pod is configured as guaranteed (highest priority). as if the PodSecurityPolicy controller was not enabled. If you are running an earlier version of Kubernetes under EKS, then you will need to upgrade to use Pod Security Policies. Please leave any comments below or reach out to me via Twitter! Lastly, the ClusterRole below allow all bindings that reference it to use the eks.privileged PodSecurityPolicy. Here’s a final tip: as a cluster admin, be sure to educate your developers about security contexts in general and PSPs in particular. privileged allows full unrestricted access to pod features. A resource quota allows you to specify the total amount of resources, e.g. This tooling can be used to manage applications and security policy for containerized applications across on-premises clusters and cloud-hosted environments. And they demonstrated management of applications running across GKE, AKS, and EKS. @bhagwat070919 Kubernetes network policies are great for managing traffic between Kubernetes resources, but being able to assign Security Groups to pods would address a major gap in EKS network security. The Google cloud docs has some basic human friendly docs. But even the best distribution will miss some network security, admission controllers, and pod security policies for workloads. All containers run as root by default. To do that sanely, you grant all users access to the most restrictive PSP. The Pod Security Policy. Before AWS, Michael worked at Red Hat, Mesosphere, MapR and as a PostDoc in applied research. It can provide better traffic management, observability, and security. PodSecurityPolicy とはクラスタ全体のセキュリティ上のポリシーを定義する機 … If you elect to use pod security policies, you will need to create a role binding that allows service accounts to read your pod security policies. A psp is a way to enforce certain policies that pod needs to comply with before it’s allowed to be scheduled to be run on the cluster - create or an update operation (perhaps a restart of the pod? First, create a dedicated namespace as well as a service account. First, the processes that run within a container run under the context of the [Linux] root user by default. and drill into policy violations in your EKS deployment. First, by removing the shell from the container image. # Require the container to run without root privileges. Kubernetes uses three Quality of Service (QoS) classes to prioritize the workloads running on a node. Apply Network Policies. For PSPs to work, the respective admission plugin must be enabled, and permissions must be granted to users. Note a cluster-level resource that controls securitysensitive aspects of the pod specification # This allows "/foo", "/foo/", "/foo/bar" etc., but, Restrict the containers that can run as privileged, Do not run processes in containers as root, Never run Docker in Docker or mount the socket in the container, Restrict the use of hostPath or if hostPath is necessary restrict which prefixes can be used and configure the volume as read-only, Set requests and limits for each container to avoid resource contention and DoS attacks, http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man7/capabilities.7.html, https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/policy/pod-security-policy/#users-and-groups, First to get killed when there's insufficient menory, secrets, configmaps, persistent volume claims and persistent volumes related to pods bound to the kubelet’s node, Read/write access to the CertificateSigningRequest (CSR) API for TLS bootstrapping, the ability to create TokenReview and SubjectAccessReview for delegated authentication/authorization checks. When you delete the default policy, no pods can be created on the cluster, except those that meet the security context in your new namespace. RSS. A new EKS 1.13 cluster creates a default policy named eks.privileged that has no restriction on what kind of pod can be accepted into the system (equivalent to running the cluster with the PodSecurityPolicy controller disabled). The binding shown below is what binds the ClusterRole eks:podsecuritypolicy:privileged to the system:authenticated RBAC group. By default, Amazon EKS clusters ship with a fully permissive security policy with no restrictions. The enforcement of PSPs is carried out by the API server’s admission controller. You can prevent a container from using privileged escalation by implementing a pod security policy that sets allowPriviledgedEscalation to false or by setting securityContext.allowPrivilegedEscalation in the podSpec. Security is a critical component of configuring and maintaining Kubernetes clusters and applications. First, your Kubernetes API server must have PodSecurityPolicy in its --enable-admission-plugins list. You can learn more about this in a recent post on the Square engineering blog. In other words, there is no role binding for the developer user eks-test-user. By default pods that run as root will have write access to the file system exposed by hostPath. As a side note, if you are using Amazon EKS running Kubernetes version 1.13 or later, then Pod Security Policies are already enabled. Pod security policies are cluster level resources. この記事は Pod Security Policy (PodSecurityPolicy)によるセキュリティの設定について Kubernetes v1.9 で確認した内容になります。v1.9 未満では RBAC 周りで大きな違いがあるのでご注意ください。 PodSecurityPolicy とは. Pod security policies and network policies: Admins can configure pod security policies and network policies, which place restrictions on how containers and pods can behave. seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames, Allow all authenticated users to create privileged, apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames, seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName, apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName. To mitigate the risks from hostPath, configure the spec.containers.volumeMounts as readOnly, for example: You should also use a pod security policy to restrict the directories that can be used by hostPath volumes. Pods have a variety of different settings that can strengthen or weaken your overall security posture. See https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/policy/pod-security-policy/#users-and-groups for further information on this topic. Oh no, My Jenkins Agents Won’t Start! Let’s print out the two security group IDs that we’ll add to our SecurityGroupPolicy. Pod Security Policies allow you to control: The running of privileged containers; Usage of host namespaces; Usage of host networking and ports; Usage of volume types; Usage of the host filesystem; A white list of Flexvolume drivers; The allocation of an FSGroup that owns the pod’s volumes; Requirements for use of a read only root file system Pod Security Policies help you when you run Kubernetes. Furthermore, this policy provides backward compatibility with earlier versions of Kubernetes that lacked support for pod security policies. Have your CI/CD pipeline testing PSP as part of your smoke tests, along with other security-related topics such as testing permissions defined via RBAC roles and bindings. For example the following PSP excerpt only allows paths that begin with /foo. The solution is to use Pod Security Policies (PSP) as part of a defense-in-depth strategy. Security groups for pods integrate Amazon EC2 security groups with Kubernetes … files containing user/password/authentication information), you’ll be able to identify, block, and further investigate the issue. These fields are runAsUser and runAsGroup respectively. Namely, securing traffic between pods and AWS resources like RDS, ElastiCache, etc. EKS gives them a completely-permissive default policy named eks.privileged. it cannot be shared among multiple containers. Kubernetes aggregates the requests of all the containers in a pod to determine which node to schedule the pod onto. If the limits and requests are configured with different values and not equal to 0, or one container within the pod sets limits and the others don’t or have limits set for different resources, the pods are configured as burstable (medium priority). CPU is considered a compressible resource because it can be oversubscribed. Kubernetes platform teams or cluster operators can leverage them to control pod creation and limit … You can reject pods with containers configured to run as privileged by creating a pod security policy. You can also use them to set default request/limit values if none are provided. Create privileged-podsecuritypolicy.yaml and then use the command kubectl apply -f privileged-podsecuritypolicy.yaml to apply the preconfigured security policies to your instance. You can mandate the use of these fields by creating a pod security policy. All rights reserved. These pods have some resource guarantees, but can be killed once they exceed their requested memory. In short, they help you to keep your workloads compliant. /etc/shadow, install ssh keys, read secrets mounted to the host, and other malicious things. To check the existing pod security policies in your EKS cluster: Now, to describe the default policy we’ve defined for you: As you can see in the output below – anything goes! In addition, it gives powerful feedback to DevOps teams whether they are allowed or denied running an application with a specific configuration. To check the existing pod security policies in your EKS cluster: $ kubectl get psp NAME PRIV CAPS SELINUX RUNASUSER FSGROUP SUPGROUP READONLYROOTFS VOLUMES eks.privileged true * RunAsAny RunAsAny RunAsAny RunAsAny false *. While this may seem overly permissive at first, there are certain applications/plug-ins such as the AWS VPC CNI and kube-proxy that have to run as privileged because they are responsible for configuring the host’s network settings. If you need to build container images on Kubernetes use Kaniko, buildah, img, or a build service like CodeBuild instead. For clusters that have been upgraded from previous versions, a fully-permissive PSP is automatically created during the upgrade process. You can learn more about PSP in the Amazon EKS documentation. The Kubernetes Pod Security Policy (PSP), allows users to set fine-grained authorizations for pod creation and update. A PSP, on the other hand, is a cluster-wide resource, enabling you as a cluster admin to enforce the usage of security contexts in your cluster. Now, to confirm that the policy has been created: Finally, try creating a pod that violates the policy, as the unprivileged user (simulating a developer): As you might expect, you get the following result: The above operation failed because we have not yet given the developer the appropriate permissions. With Fargate, you cannot run a privileged container or configure your pod to use hostNetwork or hostPort. In a production level cluster, it is not secure to have open pod to pod communication. The second security group is the previously created one for applications that require access to our RDS database. As a best practice we recommend that you scope the binding for privileged pods to service accounts within a particular namespace, e.g. It also restricts the types of volumes that can be mounted and the root supplemental groups that can be added. Copy/Paste the following commands into your Cloud9 Terminal. Click here to return to Amazon Web Services homepage. By sensible, I mean that (for example) you may choose to be less restrictive in a dev/test environment compared to a production environment. aws_eks_cluster provides the following Timeouts configuration options: create - (Default 30 minutes) How long to wait for the EKS … The Jenkins Kubernetes plugin (for ephemeral K8s agents) defaults to using a K8s emptyDir volume type for the Jenkins agent workspace. Amazon EKS provides secure, managed Kubernetes clusters by default, but you still need to ensure that you configure the nodes and applications you run as part of … Timeouts. For more information, see Pod Security Policies in the Kubernetes documentation. Q&A for Work. Nevertheless, setting the requests value too low could cause the pod to be targeted for termination by the kubelet if the node undergoes memory pressure. AWS EKS and Azure AKS - Preview also support Pod Security Policies. Pod Security Policies are clusterwide resources that control security sensitive attributes of pod specification and are a mechanism to harden the security posture of your Kubernetes workloads. The manifest for that policy appears below: If you elect to use pod security policies, you will need to create a role binding that allows service accounts to read your pod security policies. Let’s see how we can isolate the services from each other. The Kubernetes pod security policy admission controller validates pod creation and update requests against a set of rules. You can mitigate this risk a variety of ways. How to Apply This PSP to All Users. The podSpec allows you to specify requests and limits for CPU and memory. The default Pod Security Policies from Amazon EKS is a good starting point, but that doesn’t mean you cannot customize it further or use a customized YAML file to configure your security policies. ). # Assume that persistentVolumes set up by the cluster admin are safe to use. For additional information about resource QoS, please refer to the Kubernetes documentation. Second, all Kubernetes worker nodes use an authorization mode called the node authorizer. When it’s applied to a namespace, it forces you to specify requests and limits for all containers deployed into that namespace. Pods that are run as privileged, inherit all of the Linux capabilities associated with root on the host and should be avoided if possible. You may have documentation for developers about setting the security context in a pod specification, and developers may follow it … or they may choose not to. Privileged escalation is basically a way for users to execute a file with the permissions of another user or group. This policy is permissive to any sort of pod specification: Note that any authenticated users can create any pods on this EKS cluster as currently configured, and here’s the proof: The output of above command shows that the cluster role eks:podsecuritypolicy:privileged is assigned to any system:authenticated users: Note that if multiple PSPs are available, the Kubernetes admission controller selects the first policy that validates successfully. The first security group we want to apply is the EKS cluster security group, which enables the matched pods launched onto branch network interfaces to communicate with other pods in the cluster such as CoreDNS. Check the default security policy using the command below: kubectl get psp eks.privileged Best-effort pods are the first to get killed when there is insufficient memory. cd ~/environment/calico_resources wget https://eksworkshop.com/beginner/120_network … The Pod Security Policy is part of Kubernetes admission control mechanism, so in order to have the Pod Security Policy take effect, the Kubernetes Admission Control needs to be activated. Amazon EKS cluster with version 1.17 with platform version eks.3 or later. Teams. You can think of a pod security policy as a set of requirements that pods have to meet before they can be created. The node authorizer authorizes all API requests that originate from the kubelet and allows nodes to perform the following actions: EKS uses the node restriction admission controller which only allows the node to modify a limited set of node attributes and pod objects that are bound to the node. This could be problematic if an attacker is able to exploit a vulnerability in the application and get shell access to the running container. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. To do that, you also need to enable an admission controller called PodSecurityPolicy, which is not enabled by default. # but we can provide it for defense in depth. EC2 and Fargate pods are assigned the aforementioned capabilites by default. In any case, you need a mechanism to enforce such policies cluster-wide. As additional pods are scheduled onto a node, the node may experience CPU or memory pressure which can cause the Kubelet to terminate or evict pods from the node. Since, Pod Security Policy(PSP) admission controller is enabled by default from 1.13 and later version of Kubernetes, we need to make sure that proper pod security policy is in place, before updating the Kubernetes version on the Control Plane. Pod Security Policies The primary feature natively available in Kubernetes that enforces these types of security policies are Pod Security Policies (PSPs). Now let’s create a new PSP that we will call eks.restrictive . Despite its beta status, the Pod Security Policy API is used by enterprises in production, and by cloud providers such as Amazon EKS. To verify that eks-test-user can use the PSP eks.restrictive: At this point in time the developer eks.restrictive user should be able to create a pod: Yay, that worked! Note that, when multiple PodSecurityPolicies … Another, albeit similar, approach is to start with policy that locks everything down and incrementally add exceptions for applications that need looser restrictions such as logging agents which need the ability to mount a host path. Reach him on Twitter via @mhausenblas. The default Pod Security Policies from Amazon EKS is a good starting point, but that doesn’t mean you cannot customize it further or use a customized YAML file to configure your security policies. What to do: Create policies which enforce the recommendations under Limit Container Runtime Privileges, shown above. While choosing the right distribution for your needs is critical for Kubernetes security, this does not eliminate the need to check for Kubernetes and container security vulnerabilities or misconfigurations. Sudo is a good example of this as are binaries with the SUID or SGID bit. A container that exceeds the memory limit will be OOM killed. kube-system, and limiting access to that namespace. Pod security policy. Fargate is a launch type that enables you to run "serverless" container(s) where the containers of a pod are run on infrastructure that AWS manages. This confirms that the PSP eks.restrictive works as expected, restricting the privileged pod creation by the developer. Guaranteed pods will not be killed unless they exceed their configured memory limits. If a container exceeds its CPU limit, it will be throttled. As mentioned, containers that run as privileged inherit all of the Linux capabilities assigned to root on the host. Pod Security Policies are enabled automatically for all EKS clusters starting with platform version 1.13. For example, if there is an attempt to read sensitive files (e.g. In a nutshell: if a pod spec doesn’t meet what you defined in a PSP, the API server will refuse to launch it. CAP_CHOWN, CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE, CAP_FOWNER, CAP_FSETID, CAP_KILL, CAP_SETGID, CAP_SETUID, CAP_SETPCAP, CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE, CAP_NET_RAW, CAP_SYS_CHROOT, CAP_MKNOD, CAP_AUDIT_WRITE, CAP_SETFCAP. For all new EKS clusters using Kubernetes version 1.13, PSPs are now available. Then you must ensure that all users have access to a PSP. Check if the PodSecurityPolicy admission controller is enabled While their Swarm platform is still supported, the momentum is clearly with Kubernetes. Nevertheless, an attacker who manages to get access to the host will still be able to glean sensitive information about the environment from the Kubernetes API that could allow them to move laterally within the cluster. Additionally, Linux capabilities can only be dropped from Fargate pods. As a quick reminder, a pod’s security context defines privileges and access control settings, such as discretionary access control (for example, access to a file based on a certain user ID), capabilities (for example, by defining an AppArmor profile), configuring SECCOMP (by filtering certain system calls), as well as allowing you to implement mandatory access control (through SELinux). You asked for it and with Kubernetes 1.13 we have enabled it: Amazon Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes (EKS) now supports Pod Security Policies. Now, to describe the default policy we’ve defined for you: $ kubectl describe psp eks.privileged. For an existing cluster, be sure to create multiple restrictive policies that cover all of your running pods and namespaces before deleting the default policy. Below is a list of the default capabilities assigned to Docker containers. When you specify requests for CPU or memory, you’re essentially designating the amount of memory that containers are guaranteed to get. cluster_security_group_id - The cluster security group that was created by Amazon EKS for the cluster. If limits and requests are not set, the pod is configured as best-effort (lowest priority). Kubernetes Pod Security Policies (PSPs) are a critical component of the Kubernetes security puzzle. You can force the use of requests and limits by setting a resource quota on a namespace or by creating a limit range. Pod: Pods are nothing but a collection of containers. # This is redundant with non-root + disallow privilege escalation. When you provision an EKS cluster, a pod security policy called eks.privileged is automatically created. In AWS, The pod security policy admission controller is only enabled on Amazon EKS clusters running Kubernetes version 1.13 or later. # Required to prevent escalations to root.
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