pericles' death cause

Throughout these years he endeavored to protect his privacy and to present himself as a model for his fellow citizens. He learned music from the masters of the time (Damon or Pythocleides could have been his teacher)[14][15] and he is considered to have been the first politician to attribute importance to philosophy. [50] According to the historian Terry Buckley the objective of the Congress Decree was a new mandate for the Delian League and for the collection of "phoros" (taxes).[51]. The Long Death of Pericles One of the victims of the plague that swept Athens in 430 BC was Pericles himself. Pericles promoted the arts and literature, and it is principally through his efforts that Athens acquired the reputation of being the educational and cultural center of the ancient Greek world. How many people throughout history have so much impact on the world that an entire time period has been named after them? Pericles' death was significant. [89] In 433 BC the enemy fleets confronted each other at the Battle of Sybota and a year later the Athenians fought Corinthian colonists at the Battle of Potidaea; these two events contributed greatly to Corinth's lasting hatred of Athens. According to Paparrigopoulos, history vindicated Cimon, because Athens, after Pericles' death, sank into the abyss of political turmoil and demagogy. [108] According to Plutarch, just before the sailing of the ships an eclipse of the sun frightened the crews, but Pericles used the astronomical knowledge he had acquired from Anaxagoras to calm them. [μ] Since Pericles never wrote down or distributed his orations,[ν] no historians are able to answer this with certainty; Thucydides recreated three of them from memory and, thereby, it cannot be ascertained that he did not add his own notions and thoughts.[ξ]. In 455 Tolmides ravaged Laconia and secured Naupactus on the Corinthian gulf; in 454 Pericles himself defeated the Sicyonians, and made a descent upon Oeniadae at the mouth of the gulf, and in 453 conducted a cleruchy to the Thracian Chersonese. Despite Thucydides’ careful description in his accounts, scholars and physicians have begun to debate whether the plague of Athens was really a plague. Pericles contracted the plague, and unlike Thucydides, he did not recover and in fact died in 429 B.C.E. Pericles was born in 495 BCE into one of the leading families of Athens, with his father Xanthippus who had a political career and was a hero of the Persian war and his mother belonging to a powerful family. [78] Beloch also believes that Pericles deliberately brought on the war to protect his political position at home. For more than 20 years Pericles led many expeditions, mainly naval ones. Being always cautious, he never undertook of his own accord a battle involving much uncertainty and peril and he did not accede to the "vain impulses of the citizens". [76], Aspasia, who was noted for her ability as a conversationalist and adviser, was accused of corrupting the women of Athens to satisfy Pericles' perversions. [170], Pericles' most visible legacy can be found in the literary and artistic works of the Golden Age, much of which survive to this day. These glories may incur the censure of the slow and unambitious; but in the breast of energy they will awake emulation, and in those who must remain without them an envious regret. Unfortunately, when the plague reached Athens, this meant that with a large amount of people in the confined space of the city walls, it spread rapidly. According to Plutarch, after assuming the leadership of Athens, "he was no longer the same man as before, nor alike submissive to the people and ready to yield and give in to the desires of the multitude as a steersman to the breezes". [58] His stance was greeted with applause, and Thucydides was soundly, if unexpectedly, defeated. So, that period is known as the ‘Age of Pericles’. In 429 BC, Pericles was again chosen as a strategist. [6], The democratic party gradually became dominant in Athenian politics, and Pericles seemed willing to follow a populist policy to cajole the public. Such measures impelled Pericles' critics to hold him responsible for the gradual degeneration of the Athenian democracy. [31], According to Samons, Pericles believed that it was necessary to raise the demos, in which he saw an untapped source of Athenian power and the crucial element of Athenian military dominance. This kind of speech was generally given at a mass funeral, to … Ephialtes' murder in 461 BC paved the way for Pericles to consolidate his authority. PERICLES What now ensues, to the judgment of your eye I give my cause, who best can justify. Kagan estimates Pericles' expenditure on his military strategy … Pericles was faced with a tough task, to speak at a large funeral of war victims, where the people are not going be in a positive state of mind at all. When Mytilene, which had revolted against Athens, fell in 427, Cleon proposed that all its citizens be put to death and the women and children enslaved. [118] Just before his death, the Athenians allowed a change in the law of 451 BC that made his half-Athenian son with Aspasia, Pericles the Younger, a citizen and legitimate heir,[120][121] a decision all the more striking in consideration that Pericles himself had proposed the law confining citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides.[122]. [12], Pericles belonged to the tribe of Acamantis (Ἀκαμαντὶς φυλή). [23] The historian Loren J. Samons II argues, however, that Pericles had enough resources to make a political mark by private means, had he so chosen. [135] For his part, Ben X. de Wet concludes his strategy would have succeeded had he lived longer. [22] This reform signaled the beginning of a new era of "radical democracy". Plutarch describes these allegations without espousing them. The characteristics of the Periclean age have been discussed here. [109] Ancient sources mention Cleon, a rising and dynamic protagonist of the Athenian political scene during the war, as the public prosecutor in Pericles' trial.[109]. The plague killed many Athenians in 430 B.C., during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (between Athens and Sparta). His morale undermined, he burst into tears and not even Aspasia's companionship could console him. What is interesting about Thucydides’ accounts though is that he not only records the epidemic from a medical perspective, but also from a social one. [143] Kagan estimates Pericles' expenditure on his military strategy in the Peloponnesian War to be about 2,000 talents annually, and based on this figure concludes that he would have only enough money to keep the war going for three years. CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, McConville, Michael. According to Aristotle, Aristodicus of Tanagra killed Ephialtes. The Age of Pericles runs from the middle of the 5th century to either his death at the start of the Peloponnesian War or the end of the war, in 404. Aspasia of Miletus (c. 470-410 BCE) was a teacher, writer, and intellectual in Athens, Greece, who became famous as the lover of the statesman Pericles (l. 495-429 BCE). Worsted in the war, the Milesians came to Athens to plead their case against the Samians. Pericles (/ˈpɛrɪkliːz/; Attic Greek: Περικλῆς Periklēs, pronounced [pe.ri.klɛ̂ːs] in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during its golden age, specifically the time between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars. He offered her to another husband, with the agreement of her male relatives. [ι] He was reinstated in command of the Athenian army and led all its military operations during 429 BC, having once again under his control the levers of power. It is not known what caused his death – plague or grief. Papagrigorakis 2013, “The Plague of Athens: An Ancient Act of Bioterrorism?”) or the death of a leader. [42], Plutarch states that Cimon struck a power-sharing deal with his opponents, according to which Pericles would carry through the interior affairs and Cimon would be the leader of the Athenian army, campaigning abroad. [109] In the summer of the same year an epidemic broke out and devastated the Athenians. This project beautified and protected the city, exhibited its glory and gave work to its people. [139] Donald Kagan called the Periclean strategy "a form of wishful thinking that failed", Barry S. Strauss and Josiah Ober have stated that "as strategist he was a failure and deserves a share of the blame for Athens' great defeat", and Victor Davis Hanson believes that Pericles had not worked out a clear strategy for an effective offensive action that could possibly force Thebes or Sparta to stop the war. [144][145] Others, such as Donald W. Knight, conclude that the strategy was too defensive and would not succeed. The Spartan army was at this time gathered at Corinth, and, citing this as a hostile action, the Athenians refused to admit their emissaries. Paparrigopoulos maintains that an unprecedented regression descended upon the city, whose glory perished as a result of Pericles' populist policies. In exchange for retracting the Megarian Decree, the Athenians demanded from Sparta to abandon their practice of periodic expulsion of foreigners from their territory (xenelasia) and to recognize the autonomy of its allied cities, a request implying that Sparta's hegemony was also ruthless. Truly, it was simply the grace of the demos, who believed that Pericles had redeemed his guilt. [λ] According to Kagan, Pericles' vehement insistence that there should be no diversionary expeditions may well have resulted from the bitter memory of the Egyptian campaign, which he had allegedly supported. Anthony J. Podlecki argues, however, that Pericles' alleged change of position was invented by ancient writers to support "a tendentious view of Pericles' shiftiness". [65], It was from the alliance's treasury that Pericles drew the funds necessary to enable his ambitious building plan, centered on the "Periclean Acropolis", which included the Propylaea, the Parthenon and the golden statue of Athena, sculpted by Pericles' friend, Phidias. [95] The terms were rejected by the Spartans, and with neither side willing to back down, the two cities prepared for war. Pericles as Leader While he was not a king or dictator in charge of Athens, Greece, Pericles was the foremost statesman of Athens from 461-429. Unfortunately, during the siege, a plague spread through Athens and its allies, but not to its enemies, killing many, including Pericles himself and most of his family. Pericles the Younger (440s – 406 BC) was an ancient Athenian strategos (general), the illegitimate son of famous Athenian leader Pericles by Aspasia.. Pericles the Younger was probably born in the early to mid 440s BC, before 446 according to some scholars, but possibly as late as 440. He believes, and tries to convince the audience, too, that their lifestyle is vastly superior to Sparta’s, and that it is worth dying for. Pericles now embarked on a policy designed to secure Athens’s cultural and political leadership in Greece. According to the provisions of the decree, Megarian merchants were excluded from the market of Athens and the ports in its empire. [104] When the enemy retired and the pillaging came to an end, Pericles proposed a decree according to which the authorities of the city should put aside 1,000 talents and 100 ships, in case Athens was attacked by naval forces. [97] With his last attempt at negotiation thus declined, Archidamus invaded Attica, but found no Athenians there; Pericles, aware that Sparta's strategy would be to invade and ravage Athenian territory, had previously arranged to evacuate the entire population of the region to within the walls of Athens. Through the use of syntax and diction, Pericles points out the gallant and glorious men who have died in the war, essentially saying that they died for a just cause. Sophocles also has the plague as the centerpiece of his play Oedipus the King. Pericles made his first military excursions during the First Peloponnesian War, which was caused in part by Athens' alliance with Megara and Argos and the subsequent reaction of Sparta. Pericles' mother, Agariste, was a member of the powerful and controversial noble family of the Alcmaeonidae, and her familial connections played a crucial role in helping start Xanthippus' political career. Do you have an ancestral connection to ancient Athenians? The cause of the plague of Athens has been and continues to be debated to this day. [13] He enjoyed the company of the philosophers Protagoras, Zeno of Elea, and Anaxagoras. Pericles marked a whole era and inspired conflicting judgments about his significant decisions. Thucydides also mentions how terrible it was to see how people who fell ill lost all hope for survival, almost as if they accepted their fate without resistance. As befits his gladiator class, he uses a sica and shield, though does not cover his face with a helmet. Pericles(roughly 495-429 BC) was an extremely influential statesman, orator, and general of ancient Athens. [146], In contrast, Platias and Koliopoulos reject these criticisms and state that "the Athenians lost the war only when they dramatically reversed the Periclean grand strategy that explicitly disdained further conquests". The plague of Athens death toll is estimated to have reached 75,000 to 100,000. Legends say that Philip II of Macedon had a similar dream before the birth of his son, Alexander the Great. Pericles is said to have initiated both expeditions in Egypt and Cyprus,[44] although some researchers, such as Karl Julius Beloch, argue that the dispatch of such a great fleet conforms with the spirit of Cimon's policy. The ambitious new leader of the conservatives, Thucydides (not to be confused with the historian of the same name), accused Pericles of profligacy, criticizing the way he spent the money for the ongoing building plan. Kagan criticizes the Periclean strategy on four counts: first that by rejecting minor concessions it brought about war; second, that it was unforeseen by the enemy and hence lacked credibility; third, that it was too feeble to exploit any opportunities; and fourth, that it depended on Pericles for its execution and thus was bound to be abandoned after his death. [133] The two basic principles of the "Periclean Grand Strategy" were the rejection of appeasement (in accordance with which he urged the Athenians not to revoke the Megarian Decree) and the avoidance of overextension. [δ] Without opposition after the expulsion of Cimon, the unchallengeable leader of the democratic party became the unchallengeable ruler of Athens. [34] In contrast, Donald Kagan asserts that the democratic measures Pericles put into effect provided the basis for an unassailable political strength. [53] In 447 BC Pericles engaged in his most admired excursion, the expulsion of barbarians from the Thracian peninsula of Gallipoli, to establish Athenian colonists in the region. [69] When the Samians revolted against Athenian rule, Pericles compelled the rebels to capitulate after a tough siege of eight months, which resulted in substantial discontent among the Athenian sailors. In 447 BC the oligarchs of Thebes conspired against the democratic faction. [39] He then unsuccessfully tried to conquer Oeniadea on the Corinthian gulf, before returning to Athens. [77][78][79][80] The accusations against her were probably nothing more than unproven slanders, but the whole experience was very bitter for Pericles. Paparrigopoulos wrote that these masterpieces are "sufficient to render the name of Greece immortal in our world". [93] Pericles was not prepared to make unilateral concessions, believing that "if Athens conceded on that issue, then Sparta was sure to come up with further demands". Ioannis Kakridis and Arnold Gomme were two scholars who debated the originality of Pericles' oratory and last speech. [38] If it was actually made, this bargain would constitute a concession on Pericles' part that he was not a great strategist. But even if the policies of Pericles had not been abandoned by the feeble Athenian democracy, the cost of the war would have proved too great and thus Athenian defeat was inevitable. Young Prince of Tyre, you have at large received The danger of the task you undertake. He was certain that democracy had reached its peak and Pericles' reforms were leading to the stalemate of populism. [101], In any case, seeing the pillage of their farms, the Athenians were outraged, and they soon began to indirectly express their discontent towards their leader, who many of them considered to have drawn them into the war. The Congress failed because of Sparta's stance, but Pericles' intentions remain unclear. [133] According to Platias and Koliopoulos, Athens as the strongest party did not have to beat Sparta in military terms and "chose to foil the Spartan plan for victory". [68], When the Athenians ordered the two sides to stop fighting and submit the case to arbitration in Athens, the Samians refused. The number is pretty low, obviously, but Pericles of Athens was one such man to earn the distinction. He is covered in what appears to be tattooed markings around his face and body. [8][11] Although Plutarch claims that this deformity was the reason that Pericles was always depicted wearing a helmet, this is not the case; the helmet was actually the symbol of his official rank as strategos (general). Later that year, Pericles himself also died of the plague. [168], To analyze Pericles's relations with gods, one has to position oneself at the intersection of the general and the particular, where what was personal and what was shared by the whole community came together. The only statement about Aspasia of Miletus which can be maintained as objectively true is that she was a foreign-born woman living in Athens c. 445 BCE who was the lover of Pericles and operated a salon of some sort. Significance of Pericles' Death Uploaded by willus on Oct 23, 2002. Euboea and Megara revolted. He himself died of the plague later in the year. [57] The crisis was brought to an official end by the Thirty Years' Peace (winter of 446–445 BC), in which Athens relinquished most of the possessions and interests on the Greek mainland which it had acquired since 460 BC, and both Athens and Sparta agreed not to attempt to win over the other state's allies. The plague of Athens took place between the years 430-426 BC, at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.The plague killed an estimated 300,000 people, among which was the Greek statesman Pericles.It is said to have caused the death of one in every three people in Athens, and it is widely believed to have contributed to the decline and fall of classical Greece. (Symposium, 201d) He also mentions the recent death of Pericles (Gorgias 503e), but not its cause. [13], His family's nobility and wealth allowed him to fully pursue his inclination toward education. [2] Pericles also fostered Athenian democracy to such an extent that critics call him a populist. For heroes have the whole earth for their tomb; and in lands far from their own, where the column with its epitaph declares it, there is enshrined in every breast a record unwritten with no tablet to preserve it, except that of the heart. He organized the Athenian Empire and commanded his people in the Peloponnesian War against the rival … For most, the move meant abandoning their land and ancestral shrines and completely changing their lifestyle. The obvious purpose of these proposals was the instigation of a confrontation between Pericles and the people; this event, indeed, would come about a few years later. [36], In the mid-450s the Athenians launched an unsuccessful attempt to aid an Egyptian revolt against Persia, which led to a prolonged siege of a Persian fortress in the Nile Delta. Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that he was acclaimed by Thucydides, a contemporary historian, as "the first citizen of Athens". [92] At that time, the Athenians unhesitatingly followed Pericles' instructions. [110] The exact identity of the disease is uncertain; typhus or typhoid fever are suspected, but this has been the source of much debate. He even caught the plague himself, but miraculously survived! Remember, too, that if your country has the greatest name in all the world, it is because she never bent before disaster; because she has expended more life and effort in war than any other city, and has won for herself a power greater than any hitherto known, the memory of which will descend to the latest posterity.

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