Many of the citizens of Attica abandoned their farms and moved inside the Long Walls, which connected Athens to its port of Piraeus. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. "Handle Him with Care: The Importance of Getting Thucydides Right. Athens proceeded to bring under its control all of Greece except for Sparta and its allies, ushering in a period which is known to history as the Athenian Empire. After additional setbacks, Nicias seemed to agree to a retreat until a bad omen, in the form of a lunar eclipse, delayed any withdrawal. Early Spartan attempts to break up the coalition failed, and the leadership of the Spartan king Agis was called into question. The post off Pylos struck Sparta where it was weakest: its dependence on the helots, who tended the fields while its citizens trained to become soldiers. In addition, the fear of a general revolt of helots emboldened by the nearby Athenian presence drove the Spartans to action. 23 years. Peloponnesian War refers to the war fought between Athens and Sparta's Peloponnesian League. The Athenian Empire, although based in the peninsula of Attica, spread out across the islands of the Aegean Sea; Athens drew its immense wealth from tribute paid from these islands. Upon arriving, he raised up a force from several Sicilian cities, and went to the relief of Syracuse. , The more immediate events that led to war involved Athens and Corinth. The war was divided into 3 phases: The Archidamian War, The Sicilian war and The Ionian or Decelean War: phase. Sparta and its allies, with the exception of Corinth, were almost exclusively land-based powers, able to summon large land armies which were very nearly unbeatable (thanks to the legendary Spartan forces). All of this was due, in no small part, to Alcibiades. This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region. After the death of Pericles, the Athenians turned somewhat against his conservative, defensive strategy and to the more aggressive strategy of bringing the war to Sparta and its allies. From about 431-404 BCE, Greece was caught in a brutal war between the Athens-led Delian League and the Sparta-led Peloponnesian League. Thus, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. "The winter following Tissaphernes put Iasus in a state of defence, and passing on to Miletus distributed a month's pay to all the ships as he had promised at Lacedaemon, at the rate of an Attic drachma a day for each man." 200. In 411 BC this fleet engaged the Spartans at the Battle of Syme. yes. In him, Cyrus found a man who was willing to help him become king, just as Lysander himself hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian prince. Demosthenes argued for a retreat to Athens, but Nicias at first refused. It was alleged that the Megarians had desecrated the Hiera Orgas.  Undeterred, a majority of the Spartan assembly voted to declare that the Athenians had broken the peace, essentially declaring war.. …  The war also wrought subtler changes to Greek society; the conflict between democratic Athens and oligarchic Sparta, each of which supported friendly political factions within other states, made war a common occurrence in the Greek world.  The Corinthians, outraged by these actions, encouraged Potidaea to revolt and assured them that they would ally with them should they revolt from Athens. The hostages gave the Athenians a bargaining chip. This tribute was used to support a powerful fleet and, after the middle of the century, to fund massive public works programs in Athens, causing resentment. I have an assignment to do for 6th grade Social Studies and I need the answer ASAP. The rebels quickly secured the support of a Persian satrap, and Athens found itself facing the prospect of revolts throughout the empire. Democracy in Athens was briefly overthrown in 411 BCE as a result of its poor handling of the Peloponnesian War. There were 2 Peloponnesian wars, the first was 459-446 BC so it lasted 13 years and the second one was 431-404 BC (I think this was the main one), so it lasted for 27 years. "He then assigned to Lysander all the tribute which came in from his cities and belonged to him personally, and gave him also the balance he had on hand; and, after reminding Lysander how good a friend he was both to the Lacedaemonian state and to him personally, he set out on the journey to his father." Athens maintained its empire through naval power. bradeyb bradeyb In the final stages of the preparations for departure, the hermai (religious statues) of Athens were mutilated by unknown persons, and Alcibiades was charged with religious crimes.  The Athenians, in response, reminded the Spartans of their record of military success and opposition to Persia, and warned them of the dangers of confronting such a powerful state, ultimately encouraging Sparta to seek arbitration as provided by the Thirty Years' Peace. The Spartans, whose intervention would have been the trigger for a massive war to determine the fate of the empire, called a congress of their allies to discuss the possibility of war with Athens. At the Battle of Sybota, a small contingent of Athenian ships played a critical role in preventing a Corinthian fleet from capturing Corcyra. Cities immediately joined the Athenian Empire be destroyed and all its citizens should be enslaved Athens was by... 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